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Literature Review Outline

Literature Review Outline nonprofit college bachelor paper master essay doctor degree paper.  How to write a paper.
Joni Dougherty

Literature Review Outline

Theoretical Framework

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, developed by Maslow in 1943, has been selected to guide the current study. According to Andriani et al. (2018), Maslow's theory is a key theoretical model that researchers can use to explore and understand motivation in human beings. Hierarchy of needs theory is based on the assumption that human beings have basic needs that need to be satisfied for them to be motivated in executing a given line of action or activity (Maslow, 1943).


Mozammel and Haan (2016) defined engagement as the scope to which employees cognitively and emotionally connect with their roles in the workplace as satisfying. Mozammel and Haan (2016) reported that when employees are well-engaged, high performance and productivity among employees and that of an organization at large, is likely to be reported.

Volunteers’ Engagement

A focal point in organizational leadership is creating a worker-engagement culture. According to Almas et al. (2020), the concept of volunteer engagement emanated from the volunteer management movement created by Wilson in 1976. The volunteer concepts focused on linking leadership practices to employee engagement concepts and support retention of workers in organizations (Almas et al., 2020).

· Employee Empowerment

Employee empowerment is crucial in any organization. Empowerment refers to giving employees the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes within organizations (Hanaysha, 2016). Mayr (2017) conducted a quantitative study to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and volunteer firefighter engagement in Germany using a sample of 213 volunteer firefighters. The study findings suggested that higher volunteer engagement is significantly related to a firefighter’s intention to continue volunteering (Mayr, 2017).

· Volunteers’ Commitment

Settling for an authentic definition for commitment that suits various organizations proves to be a complex task (Freeborough, 2020). According to Suter and Gmür (2018), the reason is no consensus has been reached to integrate its definition in all aspects organizational workforce and culture. In Chan’s (2020) study, organizational commitment is described as an attachment or intention created by workers that is related to their participation and identification in the organization.

· Leadership and Employee Engagement

The leader plays a vital role in workforce management. Even though existing knowledge reveals very little regarding leadership and its impact, the leader’s role is significant in making worker engagement practices (Chernyak-Hai & Tziner, 2016). Leadership commitment, as well as awareness of worker engagement differ across various organizations (Kim & Fernandez, 2017).

· Transformational Leadership

Various researchers have explored leadership in different dimensions. Boamah et al. (2018) analyzed leadership studies and found out that since the 1990’s, the focus has beeen on the positive relationship between effective leadership styles and performance outcomes, particularly in the for-profit organizations sector. To maximize performance, Boamah et al. (2018) agreed that organizations should have appealing leaders who direct, inspire, motivate, nurture, and embrace active employee engagement strategies that influence employees’ committed and emotional attachment to the organization.

· Communication and Volunteer Engagement

Effective communication helps connect people through sharing and understanding each other. Meiyani and Putra (2019) explored communication in the workplace and opined that it is key in building relationships among employees, both at professional and social levels.

· Organizational Climate and Employee Engagement

Jha and Kumar (2016) conducted a study on organizational climate and found the relationship between organizational climate and performance. Most researchers consider specific components of organizational climate and outcomes that are related to engagement (Jha & Kumar 2016).

· Recognition and employee Engagement

One of the main reasons of rewarding and recognizing employees is to establish a balance in the workplace. To create this balance, organizations follow a model approach by focusing on three main components of employee motivation; empowerment, recognition and organizational effectiveness (Bradler et al., 2016).

Factors Affecting Employee Motivation and Engagement

Effective communication increases employee engagement in an organization. An engaged workforce is more likely to demonstrate dedications and commitments that are essential for the long-term growth of the organization (Boyd, Nowell, Yang, & Hano, 2018). An institution that embraces a consistent two-way communication across different management levels helps in conveying vital information from the managers to junior subordinate staff regarding key administrative issues thus minimizing ambiguity of messages and eliminating inaccuracies that are inherent in corporate grapevine (Casey, & Sieber, 2016).

Benefits of volunteer Engagement

A company that embraces effective volunteer engagement programs, such as training and mentorship, contribute to the overall productivity of an organization in the long-term. Johnson, Latham-Mintus, and Poey (2018) in their research on advantages of volunteer engagement found that training programs provided volunteers with opportunities for career growth thus becoming emotionally attached to the organization.

Review of Methodological Issues

Previous studies on employee motivation and retention in nonprofit organizations have suggested that researchers have predominately used quantitative studies. For instance, Almas et al. (2020) investigate the relationship between motivation and employee retention in nonprofit organizations using a quantitative correlational approach.

Synthesis of Research Findings

Existing literature on transformational leadership have included assessing if an association exists between transformational leadership and performance, commitment, and employee engagement. Often, scholars misinterpret organizational commitment and worker engagement (Besieux et al., 2018). Besieux et al. (2018) identified that volunteer commitment and engagement are uniquely different and operative aspects in volunteering. Due to its importance in nonprofit organizations, researchers have begun focusing on influence that transformational leadership constructs have in volunteering (Bui et al., 2017).

Critique of Previous Research

Leaders of non-profit organizations are increasingly becoming aware of the significant correlation between transformational leadership and the acquisition of core organizational competencies in efforts to meet the needs of internal and external stakeholders (Jain & Duggal, 2018). Sharing similar thoughts to those of Jain and Duggal (2018), Mahmood et al. (2019) highlighted that effective and strong leadership in the non-profit sector will enhance effective decision-making, conflict resolution, committed and engaged workforce, as well as the management of material and fiscal

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